In September 2018, I joined the Latin American Centre as the Director of the Brazilian Studies Programme and Lecturer in Latin American Studies. I currently teach the courses: Cities and Citizenship in Latin America, Politics in Brazil and Urban Ethnography. Before that, also at Oxford, I was a postdoc in the Urban Transformations team (School of Anthropology), where I coordinated research projects focusing on urban studies in Brazil, China, South Africa and India, this research produced two books that I co-edited published by Manchester University Press.
Currently, one of my research activities is in collaboration with the CADDE Centre, looking at local governments response to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Brazil. We have published interdisciplinary research and created collaborations to build open datasets of public interest.
In addition to research and teaching, I also have policy experience and I worked as a political adviser for the UN in Vienna (UNODC), the Indian Embassy in Brazil, the Brazilian Confederation of Municipalities, and the Brazilian Ministry of Social Development.
2011 – 2015. PhD in Social Anthropology, University of St Andrews (UK)
2007 – 2009. MA in Social Sciences, Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg (Germany), University of KwaZulu Natal (Durban, South Africa) and Jawaharlal Nehru University (Delhi, India).
2006 – Visiting Student in Politics and German Language, University of Hamburg (Germany)
2001 – 2005. BA in Political Science, University of Brasilia (Brazil)
While studying in Brazil, Germany, South Africa, India, and the UK, I have used research and methods from Political Science, Sociology and Anthropology, as a result, my work is highly interdisciplinary. My investigation is mainly concerned with the intersections and the dynamics between formal and informal political and economic systems. In my ethnography in Brazil, I have observed participatory politics (Policy Councils): who participates in meetings, how do meetings develop, and which impact do participatory politics have in the city. What I have seen is that participating is not the same as voicing concerns, and people may go to meetings but remain silent. Sub-optimal decisions in policy councils are sometimes less costly for participants than confronting established powers in town. There is a negative relationship between participation and levels of economic dependency. Although grassroots politics is a valuable resource to press for urban amenities, it is important to consider when poverty mobilizes or discourages participatory politics.
Brizzi, Andrea (…) de Souza Santos, A. A., et al.“Spatial and temporal fluctuations in COVID-19 fatality rates in Brazilian hospitals. ” Nature Medicine (May, 2022).
De Souza Santos, A. A. “Informal practices in politics and society in Brazil” Contemporary Social Science (March, 2022).
Mee, Paul, (…) de Souza Santos, A. A., et al. “Tracking the emergence of disparities in the subnational spread of COVID-19 in Brazil using an online application for real-time data visualisation: a longitudinal analysis.”The Lancet Regional Health (December, 2021).
Li, S.L. (…) de Souza Santos, A. A. et al., “Higher risk of death from COVID-19 in low-income and non-White populations of São Paulo, Brazil“. BMJ Global Health (April, 2021).
De Souza Santos, A. A. & Petherick, Anna. “Challenges of Creating Open Datasets about COVID-19 Policies in Brazil” LASA Forum (April, 2021).
De Souza Santos, A. A. et al. “Dataset on SARS-CoV-2 non-pharmaceutical interventions in Brazilian municipalities“. Nature Scientific Data (March, 2021)
Sabino, E. C. (…) de Souza Santos, A. A. et al. “Resurgence of COVID-19 in Manaus, Brazil, despite high seroprevalence“.The Lancet (Jan, 2021).
Buss L.F. (…) de Souza Santos, A. A. et al. “Three-quarters attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the Brazilian Amazon during a largely unmitigated pandemic “. Science (Dec, 2020).
De Souza W.M., Buss L.F. (…) de Souza Santos, A. A. et al. “Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil“. Nature Human Behaviour (July, 2020).
Candido D., Claro I. (…) de Souza Santos, A. A. et al.“Evolution and pandemic spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil“.Science (July, 2020).
De Souza Santos, A. A. and Payne, Leigh A. “The right-wing backlash in Brazil and beyond”.Politics and Gender (March, 2020).
De Souza Santos, A. A. “Governance challenges in Latin American cities“. Cell Press One Earth (February, 2020)
De Souza Santos, A. A. (with Sue Iamamoto)“Mining legacies in contemporary Potosi and Ouro Preto”. JLAG (October 2019).
De Souza Santos, A. A.”Trading time and space: grassroots negotiation in a Brazilian mining district.”Ethnography, (May 2019).
De Souza Santos, A. A. “Risky closeness and distance in two fieldwork sites in Brazil.”Contemporary SocialScience, (January 2018).
De Souza Santos, A. A. (2021) “From participation to silence: Grassroots politics in contemporary Brazil”. In Hatzikidi, K & Dullo, E. (eds.) A Horizon of (im)possibilities: A chronicle of Brazil’s conservative turn. London: ILAS.
De Souza Santos, A. A. (2019) “Risky closeness and distance in two fieldwork sites in Brazil”. In Abdelhalim, J & Marks, M (eds) Identity, agency and fieldwork methodologies in risky environments. Routledge.
De Souza Santos, A. A. and Tom Hulme (2019) “Cultural Marginality and Urban Place Making: the Case of Leicester and Ouro Preto”. In Cupples, J. & T. Slater (eds.) Producing and contesting urban marginality: Interdisciplinary and comparative dialogues. Rowman & Littlefield International.
De Souza Santos, A. A. (2013) “Chandigarh and Brasilia: utopias or dystopias?” in Fulquet, G. Janz, C., Kumar, A. (eds.) Analyzing Globalisation in the 21st Century. FLACSO & Palm Leaf Publications, New Delhi, pp. 163-174
De Souza Santos, A. A (2020) Review of the book “An economic and demographic history of Sao Paulo” by Vidal Luna and Herbert S. Klein. The Journal of Urban History.
De Souza Santos, A. A (2018) Review of the book “The limits to citizen power: Participatory democracy and the entanglements of the state” by Victor Albert. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
De Souza Santos, A. A. (2014, April 9) Review of the book “Space and Society in Central Brazil: A Panará Ethnography” by Elizabeth Ewart. The London School of Economics and Political Science Review of Books
De Souza Santos, A. A.; (2020) Sobre ausências e a vã construção de um esquecimento nacional. Nexo Jornal
De Souza Santos, A. A.; (2019) What can we learn from the dam collapse in Brumadinho?, Latin Trade
De Souza Santos, A. A.; (2018) Brazil’s 2018 Elections and the Strength of a Weak Campaign, Sociological Review
De Souza Santos, A. A.; (2018) Amid the furore of Brazil’s 2018 elections: listening for the quiet voices. Latin American Bureau
De Souza Santos, A. A.; (2018) Political Indignation, Protest and Privilege in Brazil, Sociological Review
De Souza Santos, A. A.; (2018) São Paulo’s Deadly Housing Crisis – No Solution in Sight , Urban Transformations
De Souza Santos, A. A.; (2018) Understanding the complex challenges of Brazil’s cities, Urban Transformations
De Souza Santos, A. A.; (2018) Urban informal settlements: contradiction, promise, and innovation, Oxford Urbanists
De Souza Santos, A. A.; (2017) Metropolitan health in unequal cities, Urban Transformations
De Souza Santos, A. A.; (2016) Could cultural heritage topple Brazil’s political establishment? Urban Transformations
De Souza Santos, A. A.; Keith, M.; Simcik Arese, N. (2016) How should we plan the cities of tomorrow? The Conversation
De Souza Santos, A. A.; Keith, M.; Simcik Arese, N. (2016) O que podemos dizer sobre o futuro das cidades no Brasil e no mundo? BBC Brasil
(2021) The Independent: About Bolsonaro and the making of an institutional crisis in Brazil.
(2021) Jornal UFRGS: A pobreza é uma forma de opressão política.
(2021) BBC News Brasil: Retratos do Brasil com ou sem lockdown.
(2020) STF News: Assinatura de termo da parceria com a Suprema Corte Brasileira.
(2020) BBC News Brazil: The Government’s threatening tone to the media in Brazil
(2019)CNM Notícias: COVID-19, the vaccine and inequalities in Brazil
(2019) The Lancet:Brazilian development agenda.
(2019) Business Insider:Amazon fires and Global outrage
(2019)BBC News Brasil:Brazilian higher education
(2019) BBC News Brasil:Brazilian politics and the country’s image abroad
(2010) Pesquisadores estudam a capital dos novos tempos. Correio Braziliense, p.32
De Souza Santos, A. A. (2020) Hegemonic Narratives (Panel 3) .iTunes
De Souza Santos, A. A. (2020) Municipal elections in Brazil (Panel with Anthony Pereira, Timothy Power, Silvana Krause, Nathalia Passarinho and Fernanda Odilla) .Youtube
(2020) RFI, Brazil as the new epicentre of COVID-19, political analysis (en español)
(2019) Deutsche Welle,World Link: Brazil’s Amazon Fires
(2018) BBC Radio 5, Live Breakfast
(2018) Radio Student, on Bolsonaro’s election
Political Economy of Latin America, University of Oxford (2018-19)
Cities and Citizenship in Latin America, University of Oxford (2019-present)
Urban and Political Ethnography, University of Oxford (2017 – Present)
Politics in Brazil, University of Oxford (2019- present)
Competing Approaches in Area Studies, University of Oxford (2021- present)
Who decides which stories about a city are remembered? How do interpretations of the past shape a city’s present and future? In this book, I discuss the challenges of citizens’ political participation and how the past of cities may be preserved without, however, guaranteeing places a future. The preservation of urban spaces can be selectively meaningful for communities or businesses. How a city interprets, resists, and consents to the functions and meanings that it has inherited and that it reinvents for itself is discussed with a focus on power and politics in Brazil. Looking at the Brazilian city of Ouro Preto, the limits of Brazil’s imagery of social harmony and participatory democracy amid continuous inequality is explored.
What did others think of the book?
“It is innovative in its methodological approach (owing to the author’s ethnographic study of historical memory), as well as how it highlights connections between postcolonial development, the role of the state, and discourses of public participation”
Jeff Garmany, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Melbourne.
“The close-grained ethnographic and historically grounded studies are immensely useful in adding real-world critiques to the burgeoning heritage and urban development policy context” Helle Jørgensen, University of Birmingham.
“This is a rich and sophisticated ethnography of the politics of memory in Ouro Preto written in an easy, flowing style. Drawing on diverse sources and bodies of literature – from heritage studies and political anthropology to in-depth interviews and ethnographic notes based on participant observation to literature and historical archives – this book is of great interest not only to anthropologists, heritage and urban studies specialists, but also to anyone interested in issues of participative democracy, grassroots politics and inequality in contemporary Brazil” Katerina Hatzikidi, University of Oxford and Graduate Institute Geneva; Urban History.
“This well-argued text, supplemented by numerous photographs, has important implications for historians, anthropologists, and preservationists alike” Choice.
“Ethnographer Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos continues the story of Ouro Preto’s evolution, this time as a seat of Brazilian patrimony and cultural tourism painted against the backdrop of the city’s early twentieth-century decline, the rise of a student population, a growing and increasingly alienated populace unwelcome in the city center, and politically charged public policy forums inattentive to local needs”. Ward, E. (2021); The Americas.
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